Teaching listening and viewing skills using authentic resources

Authentic resources are created by and for the target language users either for information or entertainment.  They are texts that students can read, listen to, or view in the target language.  Much attention is paid to written authentic text.

For this post, let’s turn our attention to building students’ interpretive skills with authentic text for listening and viewing.

As indicated by the infographic below,  listening has many benefits which include increasing literacy, fluency and motivation.

audio infographic

https://ebookfriendly.com/improve-reading-skills-infographics/how-audio-increases-literacy-infographic/

When considering having students listen or view authentic text, we must first anchor ourselves in the NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements that describe what students can do in the Interpretive Mode at the various proficiency levels.

Screen Shot 2018-05-05 at 6.57.31 PM

Novices can: identify words and phrases, some isolated facts, and the topic or gist of an authentic text that is composed of simple sentences that is listened to or viewed.

Students at the intermediate level can: identify the main idea and some details from short straightforward authentic text and conversations.

Here are some examples of novice-level listening/viewing activities:

  1. Spanish- During a unit on the theme of school, students listen to and watch a 30 second commercial about back to school sales at Arrocha, a store in Panama:

During their listening/viewing, students are asked to:

  • circle all of the words/phrases they hear in the commercial based on a word cloud of words created on Wordle or Tagxedo
  • circle each vocabulary word/phrase they hear and draw a line to the backpack
  • complete a cloze activity with the commercial transcript.

2. French- During a unit on the theme of describing people and things, students listen to and watch a Coca Cola commercial called “Du bonheur pour tous.”

While they listen to and view the commercial, in addition to bullets one and three listed above (circling key words in a word cloud and doing a cloze activity using the transcript) an alternative activity might be:

  • Students are given two columns of adjectives/descriptors.  As they listen to/watch the commercial they connect the opposites.

For links to authentic commercials in the target language, go to:

Screen Shot 2018-07-05 at 10.43.53 AM

Or, go to my Pinterest boards that have target language commercials sorted by language:

French:      Screen Shot 2018-07-05 at 10.45.21 AM

German:    Screen Shot 2018-07-05 at 10.46.59 AM

 

Spanish:   Screen Shot 2018-07-05 at 10.48.42 AM

Types of authentic text that might be listened to or viewed include:

  • commercials
  • podcasts
  • songs/music videos
  • video clips
  • movie trailers
  • news clip
  • live or recorded interviews
  • live or recorded performances
  • animated short films
  • fine art
  • photographs

The approach for teaching students how to listen to or view an authentic text (with audio) is very similar to that of teaching students how to read an authentic text.  Students listen/view for words they know, words that sound like words they know (cognates), and figure out meaning of words based on context.

Students’ comprehension can be bolstered before listening or viewing (with audio) by using typical before reading strategies:

  • Students make predictions about the authentic text
  • Students brainstorm connections with and ideas and questions about the topic of the authentic text
  • Students list what they already know about the topic of the authentic resource

Similarly, students can use during reading strategies for listening and viewing (with audio) as well.

  • Students take notes about authentic text as they listen/view
  • Students record new vocabulary gained from the authentic text
  • Students use a graphic organizer to record ideas while listening/viewing

What makes listening and viewing very different from reading as an interpretive skill, is that the text (unless the transcript is provided or there are subtitles) is not visible to the student.  To overcome this challenge (of not being able to see the words), students can be taught skills for capturing ideas they listen to through the use of a variety of strategies.

Supports and Scaffolds for Students During Listening and Viewing Tasks

Cloze activities

Cloze activities are those that use the script for a text with words or phrases omitted.  The task of the student is to listen to the text and fill in the missing words and phrases.  A great source for cloze activities for Spanish based on music is Zachary Jones’ website called Zambombazo.  He calls the activities “Clozeline.”

Here’s an example:

Screen Shot 2018-06-17 at 1.55.39 PM

Here’s a cloze activity example in French for the song by Gerald DePalmas called “Mon Coeur Ne Bat Plus.”:

Screen Shot 2018-06-17 at 2.05.03 PM

Graphic Organizers

Graphic organizers assist students in capturing what they have heard/viewed and classify those ideas into topics/themes.  A great example is a 5W’s (who, what, when, where, why) and 1H (how) graphic organizer.  Here are some examples in Spanish below:

Screen Shot 2018-06-17 at 11.10.23 AMScreen Shot 2018-06-17 at 11.22.18 AM

And here’s an example in French:

CurrentEvntsOrgnzr

Or, the organizer might be where students record events from the text in sequence.  Here is an example in French:


Screen Shot 2018-06-17 at 6.02.18 PM

and one for Spanish:

00af0f51741e8633fc33eaadaf981707

For more examples of graphic organizers, click here

Visual Notetaking or “Sketchnoting”

Visual notetaking or Sketchnoting is a strategy whereby students draw symbols and pictures to indicate their understanding of a text.  The result is a visual version of the text that was listened to or viewed.

Here’s an example in Spanish:

niños siria

For more on how to teach listening skills, explore the slideshow below:

Viewing authentic resources without audio

Included in the examples of authentic text are visuals like photographs and fine art.

How do we teach students to interpret text like pictures?

Some strategies students can use when “reading a picture” are:

  • describe what they see (what is going on, who is doing what)
  • make connections with the visual
  • describe how the picture makes them feel
  • express an opinion

A great scaffold/support for students to practice how to interpret a picture is a “Picture Description Frame.”  Here’s an example below for Italian.  Students lay the “frame”(with the center cut out) over the picture and use the expressions around the perimeter of the frame to help them describe the visual either through speaking or writing.

Screen Shot 2018-06-19 at 6.12.29 PM

Here’s an example for French:

During a unit on leisure activities, students view the painting called “A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte” by Georges Seurat.

default

The students overlay their “description frames” onto the image.

Screen Shot 2018-06-21 at 12.13.19 PM

Then, the students use the prompts around the frame to assist them with describing the picture either orally or in written format.

This tool and ones for other languages can be found at the link below by scrolling down to the bottom of the webpage:

https://www.grahnforlang.com/scaffolds-and-supports.html

To find out more about viewing comprehension strategies, check out the resource below:

viewing strategies

Selecting high interest authentic resources to engage language learners

21st-century-kid

http://www.thinkfinity.org

What topics are of high interest to 21st century language learners?

Screen Shot 2018-06-05 at 5.49.28 PM

Current fads like fidget spinners?

Protecting the environment by recycling?

The impact of natural disasters?

Immigration?

Bullying?

Sports?

Women’s rights?

Homelessness?

Cellphones?

The best way to find out what your language learners are interested in…

is to ask!

Imagine that you are beginning a unit on the topic of school.  What interests your students about schools in the target language country/countries?

Screen Shot 2018-06-05 at 5.38.48 PM

The slide above shows some examples of authentic text you might select for your students based on what they are interested in learning about:

More questions students may have:

  • Do the students have to wear uniforms?
  • What do they have for lunch?
  • What supplies do they need for school?
  • Do they use cellphones/technology in their schools?
  • Are their backpacks heavy like ours?
  • Do they have after school activities?

These questions provide a rich context for the “school unit” as the teacher plans tasks and activities for the daily lessons.  In addition, students feel empowered that the teacher asks them about their interests and may be more engaged in class tasks because they feel that they have contributed to the plan.

FYI- For more authentic resources on the topic of “back to school” for French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish, go to:

Implementing K-W-L Charts

K-W-L charts are a more graphic way to collect information from your students about their interests.  K-W-L is a strategy developed by Donna Ogle (1986).  It is set up in three columns:

  • “K”- What I know
  • “W”- What I’d like to learn
  • “L”- What I learned

What students write in the “K” column reveals what students already know about the topic.  It may include vocabulary words, phrases, beliefs, and misconceptions.  Teachers can use this information to recognize knowledge students bring to the topic and use that information as a starting point for the unit theme.

Student thinking recorded in the “W” (What I’d like to learn) column gives teachers information about how to craft lessons that will address students’ interests, and therefore should increase student motivation and engagement.

Here are some examples of K-W-L Graphic Organizers in Spanish, French, and German:

Screen Shot 2018-06-05 at 5.32.37 PM

Screen Shot 2018-06-05 at 5.34.44 PM

Screen Shot 2018-06-05 at 5.36.32 PM

Using high interest authentic resources as lesson hooks

A lesson hook is another way of naming what Madeline Hunter referred to as the “anticipatory set.”  It is the first thing students see and do when the lesson begins.  The lesson hook has several purposes:

  • grab students’ attention
  • directly relate to the lesson objective/target
  • tap prior knowledge
  • reinforce previously learned material
  • connect or combine learning
  • extend or enrich learning
  • show grammar in context
  • add a cultural component

When selecting an authentic resource to act as a lesson hook with student interest in mind, consider using

  • humor/jokes
  • current events
  • novel visuals

The lesson hook authentic text can be used as a jumping off point to any number of learner-centered tasks like interpersonal exchanges or a free write.  They can also begin a conversation about grammar and syntax in context.

Some examples:

Meme (in French)    fish

 

Cartoon/comic strip (Spanish)   cell

 

Commercial (in German):   572c061963c68682b6239981ae8c1190

 

Art:    26585b0c91b49b034e5e608b852530a1

 

Quote (in Chinese):  8e698c49d851a389075224943d626935

 

Example classroom scenario:

In a novice high/intermediate low level Spanish class, during the unit on leisure activities, the teacher has discovered that many students in the class are fans of FIFA and/or play on the school soccer teams.  Guided by the interests of the students, the teacher shows two infographics from a Pinterest board called “Radiografías Mundialistas” to review with students how to express comparatives and superlatives in preparation for a performance assessment where students must compare and contrast two texts.

Picture1      Picture2

https://www.pinterest.es/notimex/radiografías-mundialistas

The teacher begins by asking yes/no and either/or questions about the infographics and then spirals up to who, what, when, where questions. Based on student performance, the teacher may elect to increase the rigor of questions by including how and why questions with students justifying their responses.  She uses comprehensible input strategies to review key words in the target language such as:

the same as                                        larger

as many ____ as                                 smaller

more _____ than                                the most

less _____ than                                   the least

better                                                  but

worse

Picture3

The teacher then puts students into pairs.  Each pair selects two countries’ soccer teams from the Pinterest board and read the information on the infographics for those teams (ex.Uruguay and Suiza).  They work together to glean the similarities and differences between the countries and teams.  The teacher provides them with a list of the expressions reviewed earlier in the lesson.

Each pair creates a quiz using Google Forms that consists of the two infographics, three true comparison statements about them, and two false ones.  Classmates take each pair’s “quiz” through the Google Forms.

 

Students participating in target language discussions about authentic text

As students move across the proficiency continuum, a great goal to work toward is to have students conduct discussions in the target language about the authentic texts they have interpreted.

Screen Shot 2018-05-22 at 6.48.26 PM

As is described in the NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do Statements, students work toward being able to participate in discussions once they reach the intermediate high proficiency level and beyond.  It is important that we begin to build students’ skills early on in their language learning experience, beginning with highly scaffolded, simple discussions to more in-depth, spontaneous ones.

In the interpretive mode, beginning at the intermediate high proficiency level, it is expected that language learners can “understand the main message and some supporting details across major time frames in conversations and discussions.”

In the interpersonal mode, beginning at the advanced level, speakers “can maintain spontaneous spoken, written, or signed conversations and discussions across various time frames on familiar, as well as unfamiliar, concrete topics, using series of connected sentences and probing questions.”

So, how do we put novice language learners on the pathway toward being able to participate confidently in discussions in the target language?

Building students’ discussion skills

From the novice level, students can participate in discussions in the target language about authentic texts they have interpreted if those experiences are:

  • well-modeled by the teacher
  • highly scaffolded

Types of discussions students might have include:

  • making decisions
  • solving problems
  • expressing opinions
  • creating a product

Scaffolds for discussion skills might include:

  • graphic organizers on which students have taken notes about the authentic text, ideally set up to assist them in the discussion.  For example, if the intent of the discussion is for students to compare and contrast two ideas, a Venn diagram might be the most appropriate graphic organizer to use.  Here’s an example of an organizer in Italian:

Screen Shot 2018-05-28 at 10.02.19 AM

  • expressions lists that support students’ conversations.  For example, if the purpose of the discussion is to express an opinion about the authentic text, sentence frames/starters would be provided.  An example in French is below:

and one for Spanish:

3d9c6253f25ae12bb958143dd0357110

http://marruecospanish.blogspot.com/2016/10/como-expresar-una-opinion-o-valorar-un.html

  • protocols for discussions: taking turns, using gambits or conversational fillers, building off of what group members have said, assigning group roles, etc.
  • a routine or strategy that serves as a framework for the discussion.  Click on the image below to explore a variety of discussion strategies.

Screen Shot 2018-05-28 at 9.31.51 AM

Example classroom scenario:

In an intermediate level Spanish class, the teacher shows this quote by Pablo Neruda during a unit on Personal and Public Identities.  The teacher asks students to write a summary statement in the target language about the quote.

pablo-neruda-muere-lentamente-quien-no-viaja-quien-no-lee-quien-no-escucha-mc3basica-quien-no-halla-encanto-en-sc3ad-mismo

https://nadienosentiende.com/2016/09/09/lobos/pablo-neruda-muere-lentamente-quien-no-viaja-quien-no-lee-quien-no-escucha-musica-quien-no-halla-encanto-en-si-mismo/

Then, the teacher gives each small group one part of the quote:

  • Quien no viaja [someone who doesn’t travel]
  • Quien no lee [someone who doesn’t read]
  • Quien no escucha música [someone who doesn’t listen to music]

Students work in groups to discuss the benefits of traveling, reading, and listening to music and each student records their group’s ideas on a graphic organizer.  When ready, students move to mixed groups to share their group’s ideas. They conduct a conversation with their classmates using the “Bounce” strategy in the target language.   Additional ideas generated by the group are added to the graphic organizers.

Screen Shot 2018-05-27 at 1.06.24 PM

As an extension, student groups are given the choice of:

  • Creating an infographic on the benefits of traveling, reading, listening to music, etc. using tech tools such as Piktochart
  • Creating their own version of the Neruda quote
  • Researching Pablo Neruda
  • Polling their classmates about the benefits

 

Using authentic text as a springboard to interpersonal tasks

white-male-1871455_1920

What we know about brain-friendly teaching, is that the brain likes experiences that connect to one another.  As we plan lessons for our language learners, we should keep this idea in mind.  How do the tasks or activities I’ve planned for students to practice the new content connect to one another?

As we consider the use of authentic resources in our classrooms, how can those interpretive tasks naturally connect to productive language experiences in the interpersonal mode?  The authentic text, whether it be a video, an infographic, or a poem, gives students a context for their interpersonal interactions, in lieu of inventing isolated, unrelated scenarios.

The interpersonal mode of communication

Screen Shot 2018-05-11 at 10.42.08 AM

In the interpersonal mode, students spontaneously share information and ideas with others.  Learners interact and negotiate meaning with clarity and cultural sensitivity.  Students are expected to begin, carry on, and end a conversation without a written script, relying on the knowledge of the language they have acquired and using skills to communicate even when they do not understand.

Scaffolds and supports for interpersonal tasks

To support students, especially struggling and reluctant learners, providing scaffolds and supports for them to persevere through an interpersonal task may be the key to building their confidence in their own communication skills.  Some examples of scaffolds and supports might be

  • modeling the interpersonal task before students try it themselves
  • providing suggested sentence starters and frames
  • pairing struggling students with students who are more confident in productive activities
  • circulating in the room and giving positive feedback to students, especially those who typically struggle, for their efforts

Examples of interpersonal activities

conversation-1262311_1280

There are many activities or strategies that teachers plan to give students interpersonal communication practice and experiences.  Strategies provide a structure or framework for interpersonal interactions.  Here are a few examples:

Information Gap Activities

Inside-Outside Circles

Password

Discussion Continuum

Think-Pair-Share-Square

Three Step Interview

People Bingo/Find Someone Who

Accountable Talk

Speed Dating

Fan-N-Pick

Sample Classroom Application:

For a novice level Spanish class, the teacher selects the infographic, “Qué significa cada emoticon” (What each emoticon means) to enrich the students’ language for describing how people are feeling.  Each student is given a copy of the infographic or access to it online.

 

The teacher leads the class through highlighting the adjectives in the infographic.  He encourages students to guess the meaning of words with which they are unfamiliar using target language examples, circumlocution, and visuals, etc. to reinforce their meaning.  The teacher makes connections between the highlighted descriptors and the work they have recently been doing with gender and number of adjectives.  He asks the students to draw conclusions about how the highlighted adjectives in the infographic change to describe various people.  The teacher does a guided charting activity with the students.

The teacher displays a list of simple situations in the target language on the document camera, using known vocabulary and lots of cognates. (You just won the lottery!, Your team lost the soccer match. You got a perfect score on your math test.).  Each student selects one situation and creates a web of feelings about that topic, using vocabulary from the infographic.

In small groups, students interview each other about how they would feel in each of the situations using the infographic and the web they created.  Group members may use an expressions list provided by the teacher as support for this interpersonal activity.

  • I would feel _____.
  • I agree.  I disagree.
  • Me too./Not me.
  • I don’t know.
  • How does that make you feel?
  • What do you think?
  • I think that…
  • I hate when that happens!
  • No way!
  • Of course!

 

Tiering authentic text to meet the needs of all learners

As was discussed in my last post, “Tiering tasks for authentic text to meet the needs of all learners,” one way of differentiating tasks to meet the needs of all learners when interpreting authentic text, is to tier the task.  Another approach would be to tier the text.

Here are some simple steps to tiering authentic text:

  1. Look for multiple pieces of text at varying levels of difficulty or complexity on the same topic.

Screen Shot 2018-05-06 at 7.48.30 PM

Here are three examples on the topic of Bullying in French.  Determine which text will be for the lowest, mid, and highest tiers.

tiertext1   tiertext2

tiertext3

 

2. Decide whether you will tier the tasks as demonstrated in the previous blog post or design a generic task that will work for all three tiers like the one below:

tiertext4

 

Example scenario for tiering authentic text:

Students have a graphic organizer and one of three infographics of varying challenge levels on the topic of the physical activity level of children in Canada during a unit on healthy lifestyles in an intermediate level French class.  Students are assigned an infographic based on their readiness level or may select an infographic.  Students record information gleaned from the text on their graphic organizers.

 

Screen Shot 2018-05-22 at 6.29.46 PM

activity2       activity139dc71af4d0ed6e5022147ae98d76313

Afterward, students are placed in mixed readiness groups of 3 or 4.  In their small groups, students conduct an interpersonal conversation with their peers about what they learned from the text using their graphic organizers.  Ideas acquired from group members are added to individual students’ notes on the graphic organizers.

The teacher may provide helpful phrases and/or sentence stems in the target language to students as a resource for their conversations.

  • According to the infographic…
  • It is interesting that…
  • I am surprised that…
  • Typically…
  • Generally…
  • In my opinion,…
  • Both
  • On the contrary
  • On the one hand/on the other hand

As a follow-up, student create a presentational writing product comparing their family’s level of physical activity with information from the infographics.  The students are given a blank Venn diagram graphic organizer to plan their writing.

If you’d like to explore more examples of tiered text, visit: https://www.grahnforlang.com/tiering-tasks-and-text.html

Screen Shot 2018-05-06 at 8.19.08 PM

For more detailed information about tiering, download the Tiering Guide below:

Screen Shot 2018-05-14 at 11.52.32 AM

Tiering tasks for authentic text to meet the needs of all learners

Aligned with the ACTFL Core Practices for World Language Learning, language educators are encouraged to “guide learners through interpreting authentic resources.” Authentic resources are created by and for the target language users, either for information or entertainment.

We have heard the phrase “Adapt the task, not the text.”  The idea behind that quote is that once we alter an authentic resource in any way, it is no longer authentic.  So, teachers are challenged to offer language learners opportunities to interpret authentic resources at the correct challenge level.  One way to accomplish that goal is through tiering.

First, think about the wide diversity of language learners in your classroom.  In any one classroom, there are students who are at varying levels of

  •  language proficiency
  • motivation and engagement
  • and comfort with the target language classroom.

They are struggling learners, reluctant learners, disengaged learners, engaged learners, enthusiastic learners, and advanced learners and their needs are diverse and varied.  Often, we assign tasks to our learners that are too difficult for some and far less challenging for others.  This can cause frustration on the part of students and impact their level of commitment and engagement in tasks.

Next, we need to anchor ourselves in the ACTFL-NCSSFL Can-Do Statements and the ACTFL Performance Descriptors for Language Learners.  These descriptors give guidance on what teachers can expect their students to be able to do with text based on their proficiency level.

Screen Shot 2018-05-05 at 6.57.31 PM

Due to this wide diversity, teachers respond to their students’ needs on a continuum.  From low challenge and high support to high challenge and low support as illustrated by the graphic below.

 

Screen Shot 2018-05-05 at 5.38.05 PM

 

What are supports?

Providing support to students in the form of  models, examples, sentence frames, and task-specific target language expressions which are subsequently removed as students become more confident and independent with their learning.”

One way to meet the needs of the variety of language learners in the classroom, is through tiering.  Tiering creates opportunities for students to practice language skills toward a proficiency goal at varying levels of challenge and support based on teacher or student-identified readiness.

Some examples of supports include:

  • Multiple choice questions
  • Fewer gaps in cloze activity
  • Word banks
  • Sentence starters
  • Sample responses
  • Graphic organizers
  • Question prompts

How do I create tiered tasks?

Step 1: Select the authentic text for your students to interpret.

Step 2: Create an “on level” task.

Step 3: Create a more scaffolded task for struggling learners.

Step 4: Create a more open-ended task for advanced learners.

Screen Shot 2018-05-06 at 5.25.12 PM

How do I decide which tier each student should be given?

  • determine the students’ readiness level based on formative data (exit tickets, classwork, performances, etc.)
  • allow students to choose their level of challenge

For more detailed information about tiering, download the Tiering Guide below:

Screen Shot 2018-05-14 at 11.52.32 AM

Example of tiered tasks for authentic text:  

In an intermediate level Spanish class, students have been focused on the question, “What is family?”  The teacher selects a video called “¿Qué es una familia?” which is produced by the Subsecretaría de Niñez, Adolescencia y Familia – Jefatura de Gabinete de Ministros – Gobierno de La Provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina.

The teacher creates tiered tasks for the video.  She creates

  • an “on level” worksheet that provides a word bank at the bottom,
  • a version for struggling learners that provides a word bank for each question,
  • and a more open-ended version for advanced learners and heritage speakers that provides no word banks.

Students view the video and take notes on their worksheets.  After, students are placed in mixed-readiness groups and each group receives one of the questions from the worksheet written on a large piece of chart paper.  The group records their responses for the question on the chart paper.

When time is called, student groups rotate through the other questions, reading the responses written by previous groups and adding new ideas.

Once all groups have made the full rotation, the posters are displayed around the room.  Each student selects one question on which he/she would like to create an oral presentation which they will record next class.

Tier 1:

tier1

Tier 2:

tier2

Tier 3:

tier3

More examples of tiered tasks can be found at: https://www.grahnforlang.com/tiering-tasks-and-text.html

Screen Shot 2018-05-06 at 7.13.33 PM

How can I learn more about tiering?

Screen Shot 2018-05-06 at 5.00.54 PM

http://worldlanguagetiering.weebly.com/

 

 

 

 

 

Using authentic text in guided activities

During the “guided instruction” phase of lessons, the teacher provides support and guidance through practice with new content or structures that move students toward independence with their language learning.

Screen Shot 2018-04-25 at 10.49.37 AM

During this phase of a lesson, the students try out their new learning through tasks that are intentionally created or selected by the teacher that gradually release control to the student.

Guided activities can also serve as a context for teaching students routines or processes that will aid them in “owning” their new learning.   When interpreting authentic text, the goal of guided tasks is to increase student confidence in their ability to unlock meaning in authentic texts.

Some types of tasks a teacher may select for guided activities include:

Screen Shot 2018-04-25 at 10.55.32 AM Here are some examples of teachers using authentic text in guided activities:

Example 1: 

The teacher provides a copy of a poem entitled “La Vie” to students in an intermediate level French class and displays a copy on the document camera.  The teacher talks students through interpreting the text in the target language using a routine called “Text Mark Up.”  The students use colored pencils, markers or highlighters. The students mark all words in the text that they know in one color.  Then in a second color, mark all words they can guess because of their similarity to another word in the target language or as an English cognate.  Finally, students use a third color to mark words/phrases they can guess through context.

 .         la vie

The teacher uses target language examples, circumlocution, and visuals, etc. to reinforce the meaning of unknown words.

The teacher asks students to work in pairs to guess the main idea of the text based on their highlighting and other text features.  The teacher records pairs’ ideas as they are shared.

Example 2: 

For an intermediate level Spanish class, the teacher selects a song by Romeo Santos called “Héroe Favorito” which demonstrates imperfect subjunctive and conditional “si” (if) clauses in context.

The teacher gives the students a copy of the lyrics.  He leads the students through unlocking the meaning of the song by having students identify words they know, words that they can guess that are cognates, and words they can guess through context.  The teacher uses target language examples, circumlocution, and visuals, etc. to reinforce the meaning of unknown words.

The teacher then shows the music video for the song.

The teacher gives students a graphic organizer that lists all of the superheroes mentioned in the song.  The teacher models the first row with the class and writes the ideas on a copy of the organizer which is projected by the document camera.  The students then work in pairs to complete the organizer about each superhero based on the lyrics.  When time is called, each pair meets with another pair to share their ideas captured on their graphic organizers.

Screen Shot 2018-04-25 at 12.40.27 PM

On the reverse side of the first organizer is one called “Somebody Wanted But So.”  The teacher chose to use this organizer as a guided activity because this is the first time students have seen this tool.  The teacher uses questioning strategies to deepen students’ comprehension of the song lyrics by collaboratively coming up with ideas for the prompts in each row.  The teacher models the process doing a “think aloud” by projecting the graphic organizer on the document camera and recording student ideas as they are offered.

Screen Shot 2018-04-25 at 12.42.17 PM

Using the ideas gleaned on the organizer, students write a summary sentence about the song.

As a follow up activity, students create their own superhero using the prompt, “If I were a superhero, I would…” by telling what they would be called, what powers they would have, etc.